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Full text of "State and Private Schools for the Blind, 1930-1931"

AmericanFoundation 

ForTHEBLINDinc. 



CJ 



CIRCULAR NUMBER 70 

Washington, D. C. 
January, 1933 



L in 

cop. / 



STATE AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS 

FOR THE BLIND 

1930 - 1931 




UNITED STATES 

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

OFFICE OF EDUCATION 



SL- 



68563 



UNITED STATES . . '.. . 
DEPARTMENT OE THE INTERIOR 
Office of Education 



Washington, D.C. 



STATE AMD PRIVATE SCHOOLS FOR THE BLIND, 1930-31 
GENERAL PROVISIONS'" 



±1 



According to the Federal census for 1930, ' there are in the United States 
5,470 "blind-persons 19 years of age and under. This figure, is. one index to the 
extent of the task involved in educating the "blind. Responsibility for the edu- 
cation of the blind rests largely with the public and private residential schools. 



Of the 5,470 blind children, 504 are under 5 years of age 
enumeration, 4,966 may be considered of school age. 



According to this 



Statistics for State and private schools for the blind for the school year 
1930-31 show an enrollment totaling 5,530, or a number greater than the census 
enumeration. Of this number 25 are under 5 years of age, while 1,293 are 18 years 
of age and older. The census enumerator has no adequate method for accurately 
determining the degree of vision, therefore the census figures are indicative only 
of the number of children attending schools for 'the blind. The possible difference 
in the basis of enumeration and the standard for admitting blind and partially 
seeing children to schools for the blind would account in part for the discrepancy 
between the census and the school enrollment figures. The students over 19 years 
of age attending these schools also increase the number beyond the census figures. 
These discrepancies and the number of children being educated in Braille classes 
in public day schools, for which no complete data are available, make it difficult 
to determine accurately to what extent the problem of the education of the blind 
is being met. Since classes for blind" children in public day schools have not ; 
developed rapidly — only a few large cities providing such classes — the re- 
sponsibility for the education of the blind rests almost entirely with the public 
and private residential schools. 

Provision is made by each of the 48 States for. the education of blind children. 
Forty-one States have schools either publicly or privately controlled and sup- 
ported. The remaining 7 States (Delaware, Nevada, New Hampshire, Maine, Rhode 
Island, Vermont, and Wyoming) have legal provision for the education of blind chil- 
dren in residential schools in neighboring States. In Maine, Rhode Island, and 
Wyoming the State departments of education, and in New Hampshire the State Board 
of Public Welfare administer the laws relating to the education of blind children. 
Delaware, Nevada, and Vermont did not supply information on this point. 



±i This circular was prepared in the Division of Statistics by Emery M. Foster-, 
Chief, and Julia E. Isdell, Statistical Clerk; and bx Beatrice McLeod, 
Senior Specialist in the Education of Physically Handicapped Children, 
Special Problems Division. 



68563 



This report gives the statistics for State and private schools for the blind 
in 41 States. Of the 58 institutions reporting, 47 are under some form of State 
control, while 11 are privately controlled. Four schools report departments for 
Negroes. (See Table 2, footnote 6.) In these cases both Negro and white depart- 
ments have been considered together as one school. Educational provision is made 
for both the blind and the deaf in 15 of the. schools. This plan is for adminis- 
trative purposes only, there beinp- rii.stinct educational and ft or. sing facilities for 
each group. Montana has the same : adminis'trat-ive organization plan including in ' 
the school for the deaf and blind a department' for feeble-minded. In view of this 
fact, many items can not be given separately for the blind. Where separate data 
have been given for the blind by institutions for both deaf and blind, these have 
been treated as data for schools for the blind only. 

CONTROL 

The institutions reporting have been classified according to four types of 
control: (a) those whose board of control is the State board of public instruc- 
tion or education; (b) those controlled by some other State board which usually 
handles other types of public institutions, such as prisons, alms houses, State 
colleges, etc.; (c) those having a separate board for their own institution ap- 
pointed by or responsible to State officials, such as a board appointed by the 
governor; and (d) all institutions controlled by a private board or individual. 
The educational work in some of these may be under the control or supervision of 
the State department of education but the institution as such is under a private 
board. 

STAFF 

The State and private institutions report 824 teachers including special and 
vocational teachers and supervisors. Of these 198, or 24 per cent, hold an A.B. 
or other degree, while 418, or 51 per cent, have had special training for work 
with the blind not leading to a degree. No special training was reported for 208, 
or 25 per cent, of the teachers. 

Of the 750 teachers for whom data were reported with respect to condition of 
sight, 143, or 19 per cent, of the teachers of the blind are blind themselves; 
97, or 13 per cent, have partial sight; and 510, or 68 per cent, have normal vision. 

In addition to the teachers, -48 institutions reported the employment of 86 
physicians either on a full-time or part-time basis. Each part-time as well as 
each full-time physician is counted as one. In 13 of these schools the physician 
cares for deaf or feeble-minded children as well as for the blind. Three institu- 
tions report a total of 4 psychologists; 6 schools report 16 social workers; 35 
institutions employ 44 nurses. Employment as household assistants or in other 
work is given to 649 persons. These 58 State and private schools for the blind 
and other groups, therefore, have a total staff of 1,668 persons. 



68563 



■ ""• ■'"'■; '"' : • : * STUDENTS-' ■;:■.?.:•,■■■ >:r\: ■■'"/;,'-••, :/ . _ \: -■ _ ■'■[■_ 
The condition of sight was reported for 5,010 students as. follows: 

' Condition ' Number Per cent ■ • 

Totally "blind (with hearing). . . V 2,186' ; 43.63 : 
Partially, blind " " .... 2,812 56.13 

Deaf • and blind .......; . '. 12 .24 

■■ "'■;■' 5,010 100.00 

Partially "blind . — The line separating the "blind child from the partially ' 
seeing one varies somewhat according to the standards established- in different" 
cities providing sight-saving classes for partially seeing children. There is • 
also a variation as to the standard of admission to residential schools for the' 
"blind. The systems of education for the two groups of children are very different. 
For the "blind child the chief avenue of perception is tactile, for the sighted 
child it is visual. No child should be taught by Braille methods who is likely 
to be able to read by sight in adult life. However, if the' child is likely to 
become blind in later life by progressive eye disease, then he- should be taught 
Braille in anticipation of the time when he becomes blind. The 2,812 children 
reported in Table 2 as partially blind are probably potentially blind cases, or 
cases with little light perception who should be educated by the tactile method. 
The children reported here as partially sighted should not be considered cases 
which ordinarily are found in sight-saving classes in public schools. These chil- 
dren are probably considered educationally blind and- the educational method used 
is a tactile one. 

Deaf - blind .— The United- States census' for 1930 reports for all ages 1,942 
deaf-blind persons. Many of' the children in this group who are of school age are 
undoubtedly being deprived of adequate educational opportunity, since only 12 deaf- 
blind children are reported as- being- educated in both public and private schools 
for the blind.—/ No data are available as to the number being educated by private 
teachers. ... , . . , . 

The State and private schools* for the blind reported 5,530 students, of whom 
3,073 were boys and 2,457 girls. The age distribution was as follows: 

Number Per cent 

Under 5 years old ........... 25 .48 

5 to, 9' ., ,' .' .' .' .. '.; Y .-.', ,. . .. -. 818- ' 15.71 

10 to 14 ' 1,772 34.02 

15. to 17 . .... .,,, .-,, . ■.,, . .1,300 . 24.96 

18 years old and over . ... , ,' , . .1,293 24.83 ' 

■ 5,208 100.00 

2/ Fourteen more are reported by schools for the deaf. 



68563 



Kindergartens . — With the exception of the Arthur Sunshine Home and Kinder- 
garten for Blind Babies, which is a private .school, located at Summit, W.J. , few 
schools admit children under 5 years of age. Iowa and Wisconsin are the only- 
State schools which .reported admitting children -under.. 5. ..years of age. The general 
tendency seems to "be for all schools, both State and-private , to admit pupils as 
young as 5 years of age. However, approximately as. many are admitted "between the 
ages of 10 and 14 as "between the ages of 5 to 9. ,.' 

All "but 208 of the students were' reported as enrolled in' some form of academic 
work in kindergarten, elementary, or high school. Thirty- four institutions re- 
ported kindergartens enrolling 249 boys and 184 girls; 56 institutions reported 
elementary schools having 2,007 boys and 1,5.38 girls enrolled, and 51 institutions 
have high-school departments enrolling 719 boys and 652 girls. Of . the total of 
5,322 reported in academic work, 8 per cent were in .kindergartens, 67 per cent. in 
elementary schools, and 25 per cent in high schools. 

Of the 9 States (Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Maryland, North Carolina, 
Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia) maintaining separate schools for 
blind Negroes, 7 report high- school work offered. Eighty-four Negro children are 
enrolled for high-school work in these schools. .Four States (Florida, Georgia, 
Kentucky, and South Carolina) which have Negro departments, do not report hi'gh- 
school enrollments separately for the Negro and white , children. . It is probably 
safe to assume that the number of blind Negro children attending high school ap- 
proximates 100. 

The enrollments in separate or related vocational courses are as follows: 

Household duties 2,020 

Manual training 2,921' 

Music 3,586 

Basketry, fiber furniture, and chair 

caning 1,125 

Broom, brush, and mop making ..... 444 

Cooking and baking . 73 

Sewing and tailoring 439 

Domestic arts and sciences , 88 

Knitting, crocheting, fancy work, and 

bead work 451 

Loom work, weaving, and rug making . , 426 

Mattress making 51 

Piano tuning 185 

Other (Miscellaneous).. 167 

A much larger number of pupils are enrolled in the vocational courses con- 
cerned with household duties, manual training, music, and weaving of various kinds, 
such as basketry, fiber furniture making, and chair caning, than in any other type 
of courses. The concentration of enrollment in these fields may be due to (l) 
vocational or avocational interest on the part of the pupils or (2) to the fact 
that these are the courses which a majority of the schools have chosen to offer. 



68563 



PROPERTY 

The libraries reported by 51 institutions contained 179,773 volumes in raised 
type and 67,855, printed in ink. The value of these books was reported as $508,356. 

Thirty-eight institutions reporting for blind separately have buildings, and 
grounds valued at $15,518,386 and 15 schools giving a combined report for blind and 
deaf or blind, deaf, and feeble-minded have plants valued at $8,071,956. 

The scientific apparatus, furniture, and other equipment used for blind only 
was valued at $1-751,294, and that reported by combined schools was worth $788,843. 
Seven institutions reported endowment or other permanent productive funds totaling 
$8,772,126. The total value of property reported by all the institutions, in- 
cluding equipment and permanent fluids, was $34,902,605. 

RECEIPTS 

Twenty-eight publicly controlled institutions serving the blind only reported 
a distribution of income according to source. This showed that 97,45 per cent of 
income was derived from public funds, 1.22 per cent from private benefactions or 
endowment, and 1.33 per cent from other sources. Six private schools for the 
olind only gave similar reports. All of these receive considerable public money, 
deriving 36.55 per cent of their income from taxation, 60.68 per cent from private 
benefactions, and 2.77 per cent from other sources. 



RECEIPTS, 1930-31 

















Institutions 
reporting data 
for 


State, 
city, or 
county 


Private 
benefac- 
tions or 
endowment 
funds 


Other 
sources 


Total • 


Undistrib- 
uted items 


Grand 
total 


1 


2 • 3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


Blind only: 

Public control 

Per cent 
Private control 

Per cent 

Blind and deaf or 
feeble-minded 


$2,122,988 

97.45 

462,816 

36.55 

1,037,078 


$26,490 , 

1.22 

768 , 439 

60.68 

29,750 


$28,936 

1.33 

35,095 

2.77 

31,980 


£2,178,414 

100.00 

1, 266, 350 

100.00 

1,098,808 


$372,828 
16,950 

658,196 


$2,551,242 
1,283,300 

1,757,004 


- Total 


3,622,882 


824,579 


96,011 


4,543,572 


1,047,974 


5,591,546 



68563 



EXPENDITURES 

It cost approximately $685 to care for and- educate each pupil in the schools 
reporting for "blind only in the year 1930-31. The' cost of instruction was 
$213.91 per pupil; that of other current expenses.. $470. 31, making a total of 
$684.22. 

In the publicly controlled schools 35 per cent' of the current expense was 
for instructional purposes "but in the. privately controlled schools only 24 per 
cent was spent for instruction, .",'.'.■•„ r '_. '". 

The expenditure by institutions caring for the blind only and by those serving 
other types of handicapped children in addition to' the "blind are given in the 
following summary: 

EXPENDITURES, 1930-31 



Institutions 
reporting data 
for: 


Buildings 
and lasting 
improve— 
ments 


Educational 
purposes, 
teachers' 
salaries, 
"books, etc. 


All other 

current 

expenses' 


?':■■■■ ' ■ 

Total 


Undistrib- 
uted 
total's 


Grand 
total 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


Blind only 

Public control 

Per cent 
Private control 

Per cent 


$527,363 
23.57 

544, 272 
38.24 


$ 595,575 
26.62 
213,863 
15.03 


$1,114,589 
49.81 
665,074 
46.73 ■ 


$2,237,527 
1,423,209 


$ 287,081 
15,800 


$2,524,608 
1, 4 39 | 009 


Blind and deaf 
and f eehle-minded 


498,263 


499,593 


6,997,714 


1,647,570 


263,522 


1,911*092 


Total 


1,569,898 


1,259,031 


2,479,377 


5,308,3061 566,403 


5,874,709 










* 







PUBLIC-SCHOOL CLASSES 



Statistics for public-school classes for the blind have been collected for 
cities having a population of 30,000 and more, but not for smaller places. 
Eor 1932, data will be secured from' all cities of 2,500 'population or more. 
Since many cities- did not report on the special form-used for State and private 
schools, and since classes for sight saving were not sep&rLt id from classes for 
the blind in the regular data reported "by city school systems, no data have been 
included here for public-school classes for the blind. 






68563 



TABLE 1. - SUMMARY OF STATISTICS OF STATS AM) PRIVATE SCHOOLS 
FOR THE BLIND, 1927 -AMD 1932 



Items 



1927 



1932 



Number of schools reporting 
Instructors 



58 
781 



58 

824 



Pupils: 
Boys 
Girls 



Total 



2,937 

2,367 




3,073 
2,457 



5,530 



Volumes in the library (54 schools) 
In raised type 
In ink 

Total. t a 



155,184 
43,987 



199*171 



179,773 
67,855 



247,628 



Table 2. - Statistics for individual schools. 



68563 







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Ph <H O 


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EH 


1 


J3_ 


3 


4- 


5 


6 


7 


8 


Alabama Institute for Deaf & Blind 


16 


40 


84 


34 


$ 41,545 


$ 18,599 


$ 41 , 545 


Talladega, Ala. 
















Alabama Institute for Deaf & Blind 


2 


— 


41 


— 


18,706 


7,344 


2/ 18,706 


(negro), Talladega, Ala. 
















Arizona State School for the Deaf 


3 


4 


12 


2 


85,545 


17,615 


2/ 85,545 


& the Blind, Tucson, Ariz. 








\ 








Arkansas School for the Blind, 


13 


4 


54 


,61} 








'.(hog^^rittio^ock, Ark. 








\ 


58,020 


30,000 


60,020 


Arkansas Sohool for the Blind, 


! 3 


— 


19 


10) 








Little Rock, Ark. 








X 








California School for the Blind, ■ 


17 


8 


53 


47 


85,776 


16,457 


81,714 


Berkeley, Calif. 
Colorado School for Deaf & Blind,- 


/ 














20 


7 


33 


17 


201,965 


63,522 


2/ 182*157 


Colorado Springs, Colo. 
















Connecticut Nursery for the Blind, 


3 


~ 


11 


» 


— 


— 


•— 


Farming ton, Conn. 
















Connecticut Institute for the 4/ 


— 


- 


— 


— 


- 


~ 


— 


Blind (School Department) 
















Hartford, Conn. 
















Florida School for the Deaf & the 


9 


~ 


77 


10 


158,522 


~ 


2/ 158,522 


Blind, St. Augustine, Fla. 5/ 
















Georgia Academy for the Blind, 


14 


— 


91 


11 


43,905 


9,425 


42,850 


Macon, Ga. 5/ 
















Idaho State School for Deaf & 


6 


~ 


14 


7 


14,513 


4,896 


14,885 


Gooding, Idaho 
















Illinois School for the Blind, 


30 


17 


182 


59 


237,075 


105,070 


237,070 


Jacksonville, 111. 
















Indiana School for the Blind, 


16 


~ 


94 


71 


247,811 


15,642 


235,707 


Indianapolis, Ind. 
















Iowa School for the Blind, 


22 


6 


92 


60 


115,415 


~ 


115,415 


Vinton, Iowa 

















68563 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


Kansas State School for the Blind, 


19. 


~ 


83 


32 


$ 89,749 


$ 17,255 


$ 72,272 


Kansas City, Kans, 


.. . 


. ... 












Kentucky School for the Blind, 


19 


12 


LI 3 


' 31 


74,500 


28,273 


74,863 


Louisville, Ky. 5/ 












i • 


J 


Louisiana State School for the 


12 


~ 


54 


22 " 


155,000 


'30,000 


" 174,000 


; Blind, Baton Eouge, La. 


. 














Louisiana State School for the 


4 


— 


28 


8 


9,000 


4,000 


9 , 060 


Negro Blind, Scotlandville, La. 








Y 








Maryland School for the Blind, 


27 


2 


50 


20) 








Overlea,' Md. 








V 


• 108,850 


31,850 


2/ '106,381 


Maryland School for the Colored 


4 


4 


16 


' 8 ) 








Blind and Deaf, Overlea, Md. 








/ 




. • .k 




Perkins Institution and llrissachu- 


58 


28 


194 


56 


115,564 


'80,566 


500,146 


setts School for the Blind, 












'' 




Watertown, Mass. 
















Michigan School for the Blind, 


22 


17 


86 


49 


- 


23,600 


92,339 


Lansing, Mich. 


' 














Minnesota State School for the 


18 


10 


54 


23 


65,500 


22,760- 


75,507 


Blind, Faribault, Minn* 
















Mississippi School for the Blind, 


10 


10 


40 


14 


38,494 


10,327 


36,587 


Jackson, Miss. 
















Missouri School for the Blind, 


i9 


14 


71 


22 


75,000 


24,848 


73,660 


St. Louis, Mo. 
















Montana State School for the Deaf 


4 


«- 


14 


2 ! 


" 


71,677 


6/ 169,383 


4 the Blind & Training School 












■' t 




for Feeble- Minded, Boulder, Mont, 








1 








Nebraska School, for the Blind, 


9 




43- 


12 


3P,000 ( 


17,000 


47,000 


Nebraska City, ITebr. 
















Institute for Blind, Sisters of St. 


6 


1 


18 


. *t 


- 


- 


- 


Joseph of Peace, Jersey. City, II. J. 
















Arthur Sunshine Home & Kindergarten 


4 


9 


14 


-. 


27,468 




45,476 


for Blind Babies, Summit, IT. J. 
















New Mexico School for the Blind, 


14 


14 


78 


16 


— 


23,415 


140,064 


Alamogordo, N. Hex. 




• 












New York State School for the 


19 


32 


73 


40 


140,423 


38,741 


140,423 


Blind, 3atavia, N. Y. 
















Dyker Eeights Home for Blind 


1 


- 


7 


- 


■ ~ 


- - 


15,800 


Children, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
















Catholic Institute for the Blind, 


5 


1 


29 


6 


13,292 


\ 5,053 


' 168,052 


New York (E.221 St. & Paiilding 
















Ave.),. IT. Y„ 




i:- 












New York Institute for the Education 


9^ 


94 


36 


77,010 


48,093 


409,554 


of the. Blind, Hew York (999 














Pelham Parkway, H. Y. 




i 




\ 








State School for the Blind, 


26 


32 


97 


25 








Ealeigh, H. C. 




i 
1 






126,711 


12,719 


3/ 350,476 


State School for the Blind & the 


8 


19 


43 


16 J 








Deaf (negro), Ealeigh, H.C. 




1 


i 


/ 









,9 



68563 



1 


2 | 3-. 


4 


' 5. ■ 


6/ 


7 


8 


North Dakota School for the Blind, 


;ej ~ 


23 


! 13 


$17., 200 


$8,200 


$ 29,000 


Bathgate, ■ N. , .Dale. 


: -|-' 












Ohio State School for the Blind, 


31 1 13 1 


L51 


60 


166,625 


56,050 


158,513 


Columbus, Ohio 


J 






. . . > 






Oklahoma School for the Blind, 


20 


XO JL03 


46 


110,000 . 


26,683 


. 110,000 


Muskogee, Ok], a. 












Oregon State School for the Blind, 


6 


13 


.27,399 


5,500 


. .27 ,.399 


Salem, Or eg. 
















Royeiv-Greaves. School for the Blind, 


6 ' 2 


10 


8 


3,354 


5,340 


13,393 


King of Prussia, Pa, 














St, Mary's Institution for Blind, 


3 I 1 


12 


3 


.- ' 


- ■. 


~ 


Lansdale, Pa.. . . 


1 










Pennsylvania Institution for the 


36 1 11 


L82 


88 


.151,007 


47,018 


: 225,760 


Instruction of the Blind, 


i 
i 












Philadelphia, Pa. 


i 

j 








x, 




Western Pennsylvania ^School for the 


25 26 


99 


29 


102,589 


27,793 


106,364 


Blind, Pittsburgh, Pa. . 
















South Carolina School for Deaf & 


10 


— 


— 


- 


""* 


~ 


2/ 105,000 


Blind, Cedar Spring, S.C, 5/, 










, 






South Dakota School for the Blind, 


8 


13 


16 


7 


34,500 


15,997 


40,851 


Gary, S. Dale., -■ • • . ■■: 
















Tennessee School for the Blind* 


21 




147 


56 








Nashville, Term. 




■ ../ 






76*621 


.'. .14,837 


80,843 


Tennessee 'School for the Blind, 


6 


— 


42 


5 








(negro), Nashville, Tenn. ; 










'. 




/ 


Texas Deaf, Dumb, and Blind 


26 


. 16 


65 


28 


. 


51,000 


2/ 134,000 


Institution for Colored Youths, 
















Austin, Tex. . 












, 




Texas School for the Blind, 


31 


26 


148 


'55 


R5,165 


" ... - ' 


69,900 


Austin, Tex. ;-; ./;.■• > ... 
















Utah School for the Deaf and the 


5 i ~ 


25 


4. 


190,000 


35,000 


2/ 190,000 


Blind, Ogden,. Utah. 
















Virginia State School for Colored 


3 


— 


27 


- 


41,359 


6,640 


2/ 41,359 


Deaf and Blind- Children, 
















Newport News, Va. 












" „■'•'■ 


, : . 


Virginia School for the Deaf & the 


12 - 


67 


14 


105,420- 


44,726 


2] 119,750 


Blind, Staunton, Va, 


j 






w v , £ 






Washington State School for the 


13 12 


60 


24, 


56,290' 


~ 


56,290 


the Blind, Vancouver, Wash, 
















West Virginia School for Colored 


i 5 


— 


9 


9 


~ 


12,500 


2/ 54,813 


■ Deaf and Blind, Institute, W.Va. 
















West Virginia Schools for the Deaf 


19 


8 


74 


36 


- . 


-. 95,000 


2/ 195,000 


and the Blind, Ronney, W, Va. 
















Wisconsin School for the Blind, 


25 


4; 


92 


43 


*>_ 


' . 28,000 


141,415 


Janesville* Wis. ■•_;;■ _■ •• 










. 







10 



68563 



l/ Does not include pupils taking vocational courses only. 

S/ Includes school for the deaf. 

zj Includes 3 vrho teach both deaf and blind. 

4/ Available data V7ere incomplete. 

5/ Includes negro department. 

fj Includes schools for the deaf and the f ecble-raindcd. 



11 



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